Citations Guideline

There are a number of different citation styles. Most disciplines have their own favorites and publications that solicit work provide style guidelines either inside the cover or on request. Adhere to the style requested. Editors, professors, and graders get annoyed beyond belief when you prove yourself incapable of following simple instructions.

We use the Chicago Manual of Style1 /Turabian2 style. The Chicago Manual of Style is available online at http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/ and includes a student guide to citations. However, you might find the Writer’s Handbook from the University of Wisconsin3 guideline easier to follow. It has a section devoted to citations and includes several styles, including the Chicago/Turabian style, with a complete list of how to cite books, articles, government sources, and secondary sources. The following summary of note and bibliographic styles is paraphrased fro the Writer’ Handbook.4

Footnotes References
Numbered: Entries are numbered consecutively through the paper. (Don’t start with a new number 1 in each section unless the paper is longer than 100 pages) Alphabetical: Entries are in alphabetical order by last name.
Author: First name and then last name Author: Last name, comma, first name
Published: Location, publisher, and date in parentheses Published: Location, publisher, and date but no parentheses
Lists specific pages from which you take information Lists entire books, chapters, articles, or web sites to which you refer.
Indent and use commas to separate items Hanging indent and use periods to separate items
Example:
1. Elisabeth Oltheten and Kevin G. Waspi, "Financial Markets: A Practicum", (Great River Technologies, 2012): 42
Example:
Oltheten, Elisabeth and Kevin G. Waspi. "Financial Markets: A Practicum", Great River Technologies, 2012.

Some Examples

  1. The proper way to cite
    “China’s shares took a severe beating on June 4 in another sign their gravity-defying climb has got to plummet back to earth. Panicky investors rushed for exits, pushing the key CSI 300 Index down 7.7%. The index, which tracks yuan-denominated A-shares listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen exchanges, had declined 16% in four trading days.”
    in a footnote is:

    • Frederick Balfour, “China Stocks Take Big Plunge” (Business Week Online, June 4. 2007):
      (http://businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jun2007/gb20070604_142776.htm) (accessed June 22, 2007)
    • NOT
      • Balfour, Frederik. “China Stocks Take Big Plunge” Business Week Online, June 4, 2007
      • http://businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jun2007/gb20070604_142776htm
      • http://businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jun2007/gb20070604_142776htm, June 4, 2007.

  2. The proper way to cite
    “In the allocation to students of scarce resources, -in these case seats markets fail. They fail largely because there is no cost to the student of dropping the course. There is a drop date past which, theoretically, a student can not drop. But this constraint is rarely binding. Since there is no cost to dropping a class, the right to drop is exercised to the point where the marginal benefit is zero.”
    In a footnote is:

    • Oltheten, Elisabeth and Waspi, Kevin G., "Financial Markets: A Practicum", (2006) pp 444.
    • NOT
      • Oltheten & Waspi (2006) page 444
      • Textbook page 444

  3. The proper way to cite:
    “Markets are naturally volatile; but when they are new, thin and involve governments, they are especially capricious. So it is with the market for carbon-emission permits created by the establishment of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in January 2005. The price permits, which had tripled since the scheme’s launch, dropped by more than half in the last week of April.”
    In a footnote:

    • “Carbon Trading” (The Economist May 4, 2006): 75 Quoted in Elisabeth Oltheten
      and Kevin G. Waspi "Financial Markets…and the Instruments that Trade in them", (Champaign: Stipes Publishers, 2006): pp 445
    • NOT
      • “Carbon Trading” (The Economist May 4, 2006): 75
      • Elisabeth Oltheten and Kevin G. Waspi Financial Markets…and the Instruments that Trade in them, (Champaign: Stipes Publishers, 2006): 445 “Carbon Trading” (The Economist May 4, 2006)
      • “Carbon Trading” (The Economist May 4, 2006) in Elisabeth Oltheten and Kevin G. Waspi Financial Markets… and the Instruments that Trade in them, (Champaign: Stipes Publishers, 2006): 445

  4. The proper way to cite
    A cheat is defined as someone who misleads or deceives by trickery or swindle; someone who acts dishonestly or practices fraud.
    In a footnote is:

    • The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language, (Houghton Mifflin Co, 1971) S.v. “Cheat”
    • NOT
      • The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language, (Houghton Mifflin Co, 1971): p.229
      • “The American Heritage Dictionary,” S.v. “Cheat”
      • The American Heritage Dictionary
      • Under “Cheat” in the Dictionary


  1. University of Chicago Chicago Manual of Style Online 15th edition (Chicago University Press 2003) http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html (accessed June 13, 2007)
  2. Kate L. Turabian A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations 6th edition (University of Chicago Press, 1996)
  3. The Writing Center Writer’s Handbook, (University of Wisconsin at Madison, 2006) (http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/) (accessed June 13, 2007)
  4. The Writing Center Writer’s Handbook, (University of Wisconsin at Madison, 2006) (http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocChi_WC_Format.html) (accessed June 13, 2007)